As with the other Malay states in the north,
Perak was constantly under threat from regional powers. During the
16th century, the Achinese and the Dutch was the main cause of concern
due to Perak's monopoly of tin. In the 18th Century, Perak was then
threatened by the Bugis and Siamese. Under the Siamese influence,
Sultan Kedah was forced to remove the Sultan of Perak to ensure
compliance by the Perak state.
external factors did not help the state due to the internal turmoil
regarding the succession to the throne between Raja Ismail, Raja
Abdullah and Raja Yusuf in 1870. There was also a situation with
the Chinese faction due to the growth of the tin industry. Perak
led the immigration of Chinese into Malaya due to her abundance
of tin. With the influx of the Chinese, they brought with them the
secret sect and triad. Unrest occurred during the 1870 s between
Hai San clan and Ghee Hin clan that forced British intervention
in protecting Perak's interest.
in 1874, a conference was held on Pangkor Island for the signing
of the Pangkor Engagement. Under the agreement, Raja Abdullah was
elected as the Sultan of Perak. The British also appointed J.W.W
Birch as the first British Resident. Unsatisfied with the British
forceful influence in Perak, the Malays plotted to assassinate J.W.W.
Birch in 1875. After the death of Birch, Sultan Abdullah, Dato Sagar,
Ngah Ibrahim and Dato Maharajalela were accussed for his murder
and was sentence to death or exile.
became part of the Federated Malay State in 1896 until the Japanese
invasion. With the withdrawal of the Japanese forces in 1945, Perak
was put under the British Military Administration.
October 1945, the British laid out the Malayan Union scheme before
the British Parliament. Under the scheme, Pulau Pinang, Melaka and
nine other Malay states were to be united under the Malayan Union.
Sir Harold MacMicheal was then entrusted in obtaining the agreements
from the Malay Rulers.
opposition to the British plans to form the Malayan Union catalyst
the movement for Independence. Sparked by national sentiments, Dato
Onn Jaafar formed United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) on
11 May 1946. The Malay Federation was founded on 1 February 1948
and on 31 August 1957, Malaya achieved Independence.